Czy hałas towarzyszący pracy turbin wiatrowych jest uciążliwy dla ludzi mieszkających w ich sąsiedztwie?
Instytut Medycyny Pracy im. prof. dr. med. Jerzego Nofera
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Praktyczne problemy związane z ochroną pracy w rolnictwie.
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Instytut Medycyny Wsi
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Czy hałas towarzyszący pracy turbin wiatrowych jest uciążliwy dla ludzi mieszkających w ich sąsiedztwie?
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Praktyczne problemy związane z ochroną pracy w rolnictwie
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XIX Międzynarodowe Seminarium Ergonomii, Bezpieczeństwa i Higieny Pracy w Rolnictwie „Praktyczne problemy związane z ochroną pracy w rolnictwie"
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The dynamic development which has been recently observed in the use of wind power for electricity production is not accompanied by the consent of local communities for the construction of new wind farms. The arguments most frequently repeated against their construction are: ??spoiling?? the landscape, flickering of shade, and noise accompanying the work of wind turbines. The potentially hazardous and troublesome effect of noise, including infrasound, especially evokes controversy. Wind turbines are a relatively new source of environmental noise, hence their effect of human health has not yet been folly recognized. In addition, the majority of epidemiological data concerning the effect of wind turbine related noise originate from cross-sectional studies conducted in Sweden and Holland during the period 2000-2007. The general objective of the study was analysis of the subjective evaluation of the noxiousness of noise from wind turbines by the population living in their vicinity. Pilot studies were conducted with the use of self-designed Questionnaire for Evaluation of Conditions at Place of Residence and Self-Reported State of Health and Wellbeing of Inhabitants. The study covered a group of 156 people aged 15-82, living at a distance of 235-2,470 m from wind turbines with the power of 2 MW or 150 kW. In addition, their state of health was assessed by means of the General Health Questionnaire by David Goldberg GHQ-12. Prognosticated levels of noise A were determined for the areas inhabited by the respondents with the use of a calculation method based on the model of sound dispersion contained in the standard ISO 9613-2:1996. Additionally, sampling measurements of the noise level were performed in the direct vicinity of households inhabited by the respondents. The conducted measurements of the noise level confirmed the results of previous studies, that the work of wind turbines is accompanied by broad spectrum of noise with infrasound components. Noise which occurs at the places of residence (outside buildings) assumes values of an equivalent sound level A of 37-48 dB and does not exceed hearing perception concerning infrasound (equivalent sound level G of 61-90 dB). It was confirmed that noise from wind turbines of prognosticated sound level A of 30-48 dB was perceived outdoors as troublesome by every third respondent living in the neighbourhood of wind farms. In addition, this noise was more frequently evaluated as troublesome than other environmental inconveniences, especially environmental noise from other sources, including road traffic.The percentage of respondents who noticed and evaluated noise from wind turbines as noxious increased with the sound A level (27.1% at the level of 35-40 dB vs. 36.4% at the level of 40-45 dB), and decreased with the longer distance from the nearest wind turbine (46.9% at a distance 400 - 800 m vs. 23.3% at a distance 800-1,200 m). The general attitude towards wind turbines and susceptibility (paying attention) to the spoiling of the landscape significantly affected the subjective perception of the noxiousness of wind turbines. Approximately 63% of variability in the assessments of arduousness of wind turbines noise may be explained by the level of sound A, the general attitude towards wind turbines, and sensitivity to spoiling the landscape. Summing up, the results of pilot studies confirm the results obtained by the Swedish and Dutch researchers, and justify their continuation.
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