Long-term study of damage to trees by brown bears Ursus arctos in Poland: Increasing trends with insignificant effects on forest management
PBN-AR
Instytucja
Instytut Ochrony Przyrody Polskiej Akademii Nauk
Informacje podstawowe
Główny język publikacji
angielski
Czasopismo
Forest Ecology and Management
ISSN
0378-1127
EISSN
Wydawca
Elsevier
DOI
URL
Rok publikacji
2016
Numer zeszytu
Strony od-do
53–64
Numer tomu
366
Identyfikator DOI
Liczba arkuszy
2,17
Autorzy
Pozostali autorzy
+ 2
Słowa kluczowe
EN
Damage to forests
Long-term trends
Tree damage
Foraging behavior
Forest economy
Carpathians
Open access
Tryb otwartego dostępu
Inne
Wersja tekstu w otwartym dostępie
Licencja otwartego dostępu
Inna
Czas opublikowania w otwartym dostępie
Data udostępnienia w sposób otwarty
Streszczenia
Język
EN
Treść
We present a long-term quantitative analysis of forest damage caused by the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in the biggest refuge of this species in Poland. Based on questionnaires distributed to the relevant authorities we estimated the number of trees damaged by bears in 1991–2013, changes in the tree species composition and large-scale factors potentially affecting the extent of damage. We also discuss the importance of bear tree damage to forest management. Throughout the 23 years of the study we recorded 6937 trees damaged by bears: a clearly increasing trend and distinct fluctuations in tree numbers and species composition were discernible. Conifers (91.7% – fir 70.0%, larch 11.3%, spruce 9.5%, pine 0.9%) were more frequently damaged than deciduous species (2.9%). Larch and spruce were preferentially affected during the whole study period, and the preference for larch was distinct when collated with its availability in forest stands – a forage ratio of 0.50 compared to 0.35 for fir, 0.17 for spruce and 0.13 for pine. In 2003, however, bears suddenly switched to fir and it is this species that now predominates among the damaged trees, reaching 96.5% in 2013. Two models based on minimum AICc values were best explaining damage to trees. The most parsimonious model contained one explanatory variable: brown bear population size. The second best model included both bear population size and the average fir tree-ring width. Neither fluctuations in daily temperatures nor the number of days with snow cover had any influence on the scale of damage. Our findings suggest that damage caused by bears is not to be regarded as a serious problem by forest management in Poland and it is unlikely to reach a level of economic significance in the short term.
Inne
System-identifier
PX-57a9fc73c2dc3102969c78f5
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