Emission of BTEX and PAHs from molding sands with furan cold setting resins containing different contents of free furfuryl alcohol during production of cast iron
PBN-AR
Instytucja
Wydział Odlewnictwa (Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. Stanisława Staszica w Krakowie)
Informacje podstawowe
Główny język publikacji
EN
Czasopismo
China Foundry
ISSN
1672-6421
EISSN
Wydawca
Foundry Journal Agency
DOI
URL
Rok publikacji
2015
Numer zeszytu
6
Strony od-do
446--450
Numer tomu
12
Link do pełnego tekstu
Identyfikator DOI
Liczba arkuszy
0.35
Autorzy
Pozostali autorzy
+ 1
Słowa kluczowe
EN
environmental protection
foundry
furan resins
free furyl alcohol
BTEX and PAHs
Streszczenia
Język
EN
Treść
At present, furan resin is the largest selling no-bake system of moulding sands. The most commonly used furan no-bake binders (FNB) are condensation products of furfuryl alcohol(FA) urea, formaldehyde and phenol. They are generally cured by exposure to organic sulfonic acids. FNB provide excellent mold and core strength, cure rapidly and allow the sand to be reclaimed at fairly high yields, generally 75%-80%, especially in applications where due allowance is made for the need to keep total sulfur content below 0.1%. However, due to probable carcinogenic properties of furfuryl alcohol, the EU Directive limits the content of this substance (in a monomer form in resin) to 25%. The classification of furfuryl alcohol and the resulting furan resin products has changed from “harmful” to “toxic by inhalation”. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of free furfuryl alcohol content in the resin on the emission of harmful substances from the BTEX (Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene & Xylene) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) group exposed to high temperature and how it affects the emissions allowance of reclaimed sand in the matrix. Three resins from a leading manufacturer were examined, which contain a free furfuryl alcohol content of 71%-72%, about 50% and < 25%, respectively. The hardener for each resin was 65% aqueous solution of paratoluenesulfonic acid. Tests were carried out in semi-industrial conditions where liquid cast-iron was poured into sample sand mold at 1,350 °C. The matrix of the studied sands was reclaimed in the amount of 0, 50%, 100%, respectively. With the increase of free furfuryl alcohol content, the volume of evolved gases decreased. For all resins the main component from the BTEX group dominating in the emitted gases was benzene; however toluene also appeared in the amount of a few percentages. In contrast, ethylbenzene and xylenes occurred only in the gases emitted from resin-bonded sands with the largest furfuryl alcohol content. The increase in the share of reclaimed sands resulted in very significant increase in the volume of gas generated and participation of benzene in these gases. In terms of emission of compounds from the PAHs group virtually for all resins, the total content of these substances was comparable (within the limits of error). The main components were: fluoranthene, pyrene and benzo(a) anthracene.
Cechy publikacji
original article
peer-reviewed
Inne
System-identifier
idp:094849