Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity, and total phenolic content in different extracts of propolis from the West Pomeranian region in Poland
Instytut Immunologii i Terapii Doświadczalnej im. Ludwika Hirszfelda Polskiej Akademii Nauk
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Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica - Drug Research (15pkt w roku publikacji)
Polskie Towarzystwo Farmaceutyczne
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bee glue
chemical composition
biological activity
human gingival fibroblasts
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Propolis, or ìbee glueî, is a complex material of plant origin, collected and processed by bees to seal hives and to protect them against pathogenic microorganisms. Due to a broad spectrum of biological properties it could be applied in different disciplines of medicine and dentistry, as an antibacterial, antifungial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory agent (1). More than 300 chemical compounds have been identified in propolis. They include resins, waxes, volatile oils, aromatic acids, vitamins, proteins, amino acids and sugars. The major group of biologically active compounds are polyphenols, including phenolic acids and flavonoids (2, 3). The most characteristic chemical compounds present in propolis originating from the region of temperate climate are flavonoids such as chrysin, galangin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin (4). Numerous studies discovered that chemical composition and biological activity of different propolis samples may differ significantly. This diversity is a result of the plant origin of propolis and it strongly depends on the geographic region and climatic conditions of the site of propolis collection, the botanical origin and the bee species. In Europe, propolis originates mainly from the resinous exudates of the buds of poplar trees. Propolis from tropical regions, such as Brazil or Cuba, has different chemical composition and attracts attention of many research groups. In spite of the considerable diversity of chemical composition, the biological activity of propolis of different origin remains similar (5). Currently, bee glue is used in cosmetic industry as an ingredient of anti-acne creams, body lotions and preparations for oral hygiene (1). The wide area of potential application of propolis covers a treatment of various diseases, such as colds, wounds, acne, rheumatism, heart diseases, diabetes, dental caries and even cancer (4). For this purposes, different formulations (capsules, ointment, creams, pastes, rinses, powder) have been proposed for various applications (2). The final components are determined by the method of extraction, the time of extraction and the type of solvent used. The most popular form is extraction with 70% ethanol to obtain ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP). In 2013, all known commercially available propolis-based products were prepared with EEP (6). However, the possibility of the application of other solvents have been also investigated (7). In spite of the numerous studies concerning properties of propolis, many questions remain still open. The aim of the presented study was to achieve samples of Polish propolis by means of different extraction methodologies. The products obtained through the ethanolic, hexane and water extraction were evaluated in terms of their chemical components and therapeutic efficacy. The comparative analysis included investigation of the phenolic content of different extracts of Polish propolis, their antimicrobial properties and safety to normal cells (human gingival fibroblasts, HGFs).
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