Assessment of heavy metal contamination levels of street dust in the city of Lublin, E Poland
PBN-AR
Instytucja
Wydział Nauk o Ziemi i Gospodarki Przestrzennej (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie)
Informacje podstawowe
Główny język publikacji
angielski
Czasopismo
Environmental Earth Sciences (25pkt w roku publikacji)
ISSN
1866-6280
EISSN
1866-6299
Wydawca
SPRINGER
DOI
URL
Rok publikacji
2018
Numer zeszytu
Strony od-do
1-11
Numer tomu
77
Identyfikator DOI
Liczba arkuszy
Streszczenia
Język
angielski
Treść
Heavy metals are constantly emitted into the environment and pose a major threat to human health, particularly in urban areas. The threat is linked to the presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in street dust, which consists of mineral and organic particles originating from the soil, industrial emitters, motor vehicles, and fuel consumption. The study objective was to determine the level of street dust contamination with trace metals in Lublin and to indicate their potential sources of origin. The analyses were carried out with an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The sampling sites (49) were located within the city streets characterised by varying intensity of motor traffic. The following mean content values and their variation (SD) were determined: Cd: 5.1 ± 1.7 mg kg−1, Cr: 86.4 ± 23.3 mg kg−1, Cu: 81.6 ± 69.2 mg kg−1, Ni: 16.5 ± 3.9 mg kg−1, Pb: 44.1 ± 16.4 mg kg−1, and Zn: 241.1 ± 94.6 mg kg−1. The level of pollution was assessed with several widely used geochemical indices (geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor, pollution index, index of ecological risk, and potential ecological risk index). For most of the indices, the mean (median) values are arranged in the following manner: Zn > Cu(or Cd) > Pb > Ni > Cr. In general, street dust in Lublin does not show pollution with Cr, Ni, and Pb. Igeo and EF indices show moderate levels for Cu, Cd, and Zn; their presence in street dust is linked with anthropogenic factors (motor traffic). A significant threat is posed by Cd, and more than half of the samples show considerable pollution with cadmium (median for the index of ecological risk: 151). The spatial pattern of indices and the results of statistical analyses (CA, PCA) indicate three groups of elements: (1) Cr and Ni: natural origin; (2) Pb: mixed origin; and (3) Cd, Cu, and Zn: anthropogenic origin (mainly motor vehicle traffic). Higher content values for metals of anthropogenic origin in street dust indicate that it is a source of pollution of soil and air in the city.
Inne
System-identifier
PX-5c2dcee3d5deeffd294e419b
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