Deceptive strategy in Dactylorhiza orchids: multidirectional evolution of floral chemistry
PBN-AR
Instytucja
Wydział Biologiczno-Chemiczny (Uniwersytet w Białymstoku)
Informacje podstawowe
Główny język publikacji
angielski
Czasopismo
ANNALS OF BOTANY
ISSN
0305-7364
EISSN
1095-8290
Wydawca
OXFORD UNIV PRESS
DOI
URL
Rok publikacji
2019
Numer zeszytu
6
Strony od-do
1005-1016
Numer tomu
123
Identyfikator DOI
Liczba arkuszy
2,19
Słowa kluczowe
angielski
CpDNA;
Dactylorhiza fuchsii;
D. incarnata;
D. majalis;
floral chemical ecology;
flow cytometry;
food-deceptive orchids;
ITS; pollinators;
Streszczenia
Język
angielski
Treść
Background and Aims: The deception strategies of orchids remain poorly understood, especially in regard to the chemical compounds emitted from their flowers and their interaction with various taxonomic groups of pollinators. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and compared the variation of floral chemical compounds between food-deceptive Dactylorhiza taxa (D. incarnata var. incarnata and D. incarnata var. ochroleuca, D. fuchsii and D. majalis) from populations in north-eastern Poland. We propose a model of the evolution of deception based on floral chemical signals in this genus. Methods: A Bayesian approach based on polymorphic plastid DNA (trnL, trnF and psbC-trnK), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and flow cytometry data was applied to confirm the taxonomic status of the studied orchids. We also identified and classified the pollinators and flower visitors in each Dactylorhiza population to the taxonomic level and compared our results with literature data. The chemical composition of pentane and diethyl ether extracts from the flowers was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Variation of the floral chemical components was visualized by non-metric multidimensional scaling based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity. Key Results: The genetic distinctiveness of D. incarnata, D. fuchsii and D. majalis was confirmed. No hybrids between them were found, but the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA), ITS haplotypes and flow cytometry showed genetic similarity between D. incarnata var. incarnata and D. incarnata var. ochroleuca. We determined that Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera) was the only shared pollinator of these taxa. Strangalia attenuata and Alosterna tabacicolor (Coleoptera) and Volucella pellucens and V. bombylans (Hymenoptera) were observed pollinating D. fuchsii. Visualization of the emission rates of the 61 floral chemical compounds detected from pentane extracts (mainly hydrocarbons and aldehydes) and the 51 from diethyl extracts (with abundant groups of benzenoids and non-aromatic acids) strongly differentiated D. incarnata, D. fuchsii and D. majalis, while those of the two varieties of D. incarnata (var. incarnata and var. ochroleuca) were almost identical. Conclusions: While the genetic data clearly supported the distinct lineages of D. incarnata, D. fuchsii and D. majalis, the patterns of emission of their flower chemical compounds were more complex within the series of shared compounds (alkanes and aldehydes) and taxon-specific compounds (benzenoids and esters). Their floral bouquet can influence the sexual, social and feeding behaviour of pollinators in different ways. We observed that the floral chemical compounds attracted both shared and species-specific pollinators to Dactylorhiza, confirming the multidirectional character of floral chemical signals in these food-deceptive taxa. Reduction of species-specific pollination levels in Dactylorhiza orchid taxa may promote hybridization between them.
Cechy publikacji
publikacja naukowa oryginalna
Inne
System-identifier
PX-5cde7d27d5de99a645ab5731
CrossrefMetadata from Crossref logo
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